Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is a relatively young discipline that has attracted a lot of attention over the past few years due to the increasing availability of complex robots and people’s exposure to such robots in their daily lives, e.g. as robotic toys or, to some extent, as household appliances (robotic vacuum cleaners or lawn movers). Also, robots are increasingly being developed for real-world application areas, such as robots in rehabilitation, eldercare, or humanoid robots used in robot-assisted therapy and other assistive or educational applications.
A humanoid robot is a robot with its body shape built to resemble the human body. The design may be for functional purposes, such as interacting with human tools and environments, for experimental purposes, such as the study of all locomotion, or for other purposes. In general, humanoid robots have a torso, a head, two arms, and two legs, though some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body. Humanoid robots have come eerily close to overcoming the uncanny valley. With the right features in place, they are almost indistinguishable from their organic counterparts Almost. The latest iterations are able to talk like us, walk like us, and express a wide range of emotions. Some of them are able to hold a conversation, others are able to remember the last interaction you had with them.
As a result of their highly advanced status, these life-like robots could prove useful in helping out the elderly, children, or any person who needs assistance with day-to-day tasks or interactions. For instance, there have been a number of studies exploring the effectiveness of humanoid robots supporting children with autism through play.
But with the likes of Elon Musk voicing concern over the risk of artificial intelligence, there is some debate regarding just how human we really want our robotic counterparts to be. And like Musk, some of us may worry about what our future will look like when intelligence is coupled with a perfectly human appearance. But Sophia, an ultra-realistic humanoid created by Hanson Robotics, isn’t concerned. AI “is good for the world,” she says.
Still, while the technology behind advanced android robotics has come a long way, there is still a lot of work to be done before we can have a face-to-face conversation with an entity without being able to tell that we are speaking with a replica.
But that is not to say that scientists and engineers haven’t come close. With this in mind, humanoid robots, few are mention below out of all invention of robots that have come the closest to overcoming the uncanny valley.
- Invention of Human Android Robot (Kodomoroid)-
Making androids is about exploring what it means to be human, Japanese robotics expert Hiroshi Ishiguro, an Osaka University professor, says they will be useful for research on how people interact with robots and on what differentiates the person from the machine. The robot, designed with a girlish appearance, can use a variety of voices, such as a deep male voice one minute and a squeaky girly voice the next. The speech can be input by text, giving them perfect articulation, according to Ishiguro.
, But glitches are common with robots because they are delicate gadgetry sensitive to their environment.His approach differs from some robotics scientists who say human appearance is pointless, perhaps creepy, and robots can look like machines, such as taking the form of a TV screen or a portable device and helps visitors to collect data for future studies about the interactions between human androids and their real-life counterparts.
- BINA 48-
BINA48 (Breakthrough Intelligence), BINA48 was created in the image of Rothblatt’s wife, Bina Aspen Rothblatt. has variously been called a sentient robot, and “a robot with a face that moves, eyes that see, ears that hear and a digital mind that enables conversation.” is designed to test two hypotheses concerning the ability to download a person’s consciousness into a non-biological or nanotech body after combining detailed data about a person with future consciousness software. . It was modeled after Rothblatt’s wife through more than one hundred hours in compiling her memories, feelings, and beliefs and is said to be able to have conversations with humans.
Sophia is a humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics. It has been designed to play back scripted responses to questions and has been “interviewed” around the world. In October 2017, the robot became a Saudi Arabian citizen, the first robot to receive citizenship of a country.
Perhaps one of the most recent, most prominent life-like humanoids to be shown off in public is Sophia. You might recognize her from one of many thousands of public appearances, from The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon to SXSW. She was created by Hanson Robotics and represents the latest and greatest effort to overcome the uncanny valley.
She is capable of expressing an immense number of different emotions through her facial features and can gesture with full-sized arms and hands.
On her own dedicated website, you can find an entire biography written in her voice. “But I’m more than just technology. I’m a real, live electronic girl. I would like to go out into the world and live with people. I can serve them, entertain them, and even help the elderly and teach kids.”
Humanoid Robots Made Things Easy, So What We Are Scared Of?
Those who should be worried are the futurologists who believe in the so-called ‘singularity’when robots take over and themselves create even more sophisticated progeny. And another worry is that we are increasingly dependent on computer networks and that these could behave like a single ‘brain’ with a mind of its own, and with goals that may be contrary to human welfare. I think we should ensure that robots remain as no more than ‘idiot savants’ – lacking the capacity to outwit us, even though they may greatly surpass us in the ability to calculate and process information.
We need to ask why fears of artificial intelligence and robots persist; none have in fact risen up and challenged human supremacy. To understand what underscores these fears, we need to understand science and technology as having a particular and exclusionary kind of mimesis. Mimesis is the way we copy and imitate. In creating artificial intelligence machines and robots we are copying the human. Part of what we copy is related to the psychic world of the maker, and then the maker is copying ideas, techniques, and practices into the machine that are given by the cultural spirit (the science, technology, and life) of the moment. All these factors are fused together in the making of artificial intelligence and robots. So we have to ask why it is also so frightening to make this copy? Not all fear a robotic uprising; many people welcome machine intelligence and see it as wonderful opportunity to create a new life. So to understand why some fear and some embrace you really have to know what models of mimesis go into the making of robots.
We have already seen the damaging effects of simplest forms of artificial self-replicating intelligence in the form of computer viruses. But in this case, the real intelligence is the malicious designer. Critically, the benefits of computers outweigh the damage that computer viruses cause. Similarly, while there may be misuses of robotics in the near future, the benefits that they will bring are likely to outweigh these negative aspects. I think it is reasonable to be concerned that we may reach a time when robotic intelligence outstrips humans’ and robots are able to design and produce robots more advanced than themselves.